Weight excess and inflammation in menopause: pathophysiology of a dangerous liaison and role of lifestyles
1 – Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Endocrinology Section, “Federico II” University of Naples, Naples, Italy
2 – Unesco Chair “Health Education and Sustainable Development”, Federico II University, Naples, Italy
3 – Center for Gynecology and Medical Sexology H. San Raffaele Resnati Milan, Italy; Graziottin Foundation for the treatment of pain in women, ONLUS, Italy
Corresponding Author: Gabriella Pugliese
Weight gain is a common condition in menopause. It recognizes both non- modifiable and modifiable multifactorial etiological mechanisms. The first include: age, climacteric hormonal changes, alteration of hunger and satiety circuits, reduction of energy expenditure and sleep disorders; while among non-modifiable factors: sedentary lifestyle and nutrition, including the ea- ting time (chrononutrition and chronotype). The redistribution of adipo- se tissue, mainly from the subcutaneous site to the visceral site, acts as a real endocrine organ capable of secreting adipokines and proinflammatory cytokines such as TNF-a, IL-1, IL-6 and leptin. This contributes to the meno- pausal chronic low-grade inflammation, that increases the risk of metabolic disorders, cardiovascular events and neurovegetative disorders. Lifestyles interventions are the first line approach to cope with this condition. To date there are no specific dietary and exercise recommendations to be prescribed in overweight/obese women at menopause. The purpose of this review is, first, to analyse the mechanisms that favour weight gain, with focus on the role of sleep disorders and of proinflammatory mediators produced by the adipose tissue; second, to provide practical recommendations focused on li- festyles, useful in the general clinical management of postmenopausal wo- men. The potential role of bowel microbiota and chronotype will be finally briefly discussed.
Keywords: menopause; obesity; inflammation; sleep disorders; adipose tissue; adipokines.
Available in LRIOG Nr.4 – 2021