Staphylococcus aureus vulvitis

Staphylococcus aureus vulvitis: an insidious infection that stresses the importance of appropriate intimate hygiene

Alessandra Grazziottin1,2 – Orcid, Elena Boero1 – Orcid

1 – Alessandra Graziottin Foundation for the treatment of pain in women – Onlus

2 – Gynecology and Medical Sexology Center, H. San Raffaele Resnati, Milan

Corresponding author: Alessandra Graziottin

direzione@studiograziottin.it


DOI: 10.53146/lriog1202113

Abstract

Why do folliculitis and other bacterial vulvar infections represent disorders of interest in the gynecological practice? Which predisposing, precipitating, and maintaining factors should be considered by the gynecologist when recurrent bacterial infections of vulvar skin become a clinical challenge? When is it appropriate to think of Staphylococcus aureus as a principle etiological agent? Why do S. aureus vulvar infections represent an emerging threat for women’s health? New hygienic and cosmetic practices, including over-zealous cleansing and micro- and macro-traumatic hair removal techniques, lead to a significant increase of vulvar infections in the clinical practice. Factors predisposing to bacterial vulvar infections, such as personal and familial diabetes and obesity, indicate to the gynecologist an alteration of the vulvar ecosystem, which can predispose to more severe pathologies. S. aureus, the main infectious agent, causes increasing medical concerns because of its pathogenic and invasive capacity. Moreover, the rapid ability of S. aureus of developing antibiotic resistances is even more challenging in surgical specialties, especially in obstetrics and gynecology, for the reduced availability of effective antibiotics for treatment. The gynecologist has an important educational role on the appropriate hygiene principles, to reduce bacterial vulvar infections, more threatening for their increasing invasive potential, especially in more vulnerable subjects.

Keywords: intimate hygiene; cutaneous infections; staphylococcus aureus; vulva.


Available in LRIOG Nr.1 – 2021

e-ISSN: 1824-0283


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Syphilis: why the disease is more insidious in women

Syphilis: why the disease is more insidious in women

Alessandra Grazziottin1,2 – Orcid, Elena Boero1 – Orcid

1 – Alessandra Graziottin Foundation for the treatment of pain in women – Onlus

2 – Gynecology and Medical Sexology Center, H. San Raffaele Resnati, Milan

Corresponding author: Alessandra Graziottin

direzione@studiograziottin.it


DOI: 10.53146/lriog1202112

Abstract

Why should syphilis be reconsidered in gynecological clinical practice? Why are women more vulnerable to late diagnosis? What are the key points for timely and effective diagnosis and treatment? What are the avoidable consequences of diagnostic and therapeutic delays? Syphilis is caused by the sexually and vertically transmitted bacterium Treponema pallidum. Syphilis, wrongly considered outdated, is making an aggressive comeback worldwide. From a medical point of view, diagnostic timeliness is hampered by: a lack of familiarity with this re-emerging disease and a consequent lack of consideration in the anamnestic picture and differential diagnosis; complex course, which alternates insidious and variable symptomatic phases, with periods of clinical latency, while the disease continues its pro-inflammatory and destructive action at the subclinical level. The late or missed diagnosis of syphilis leads to a prolonged infection, with permanent and at times fatal outcomes. The danger of a delay in diagnosis also results in persistent infectivity of the patients, who continue to infect their sexual partners, and the fetus, if pregnant. The aim of the work is: to identify the key points for timely and effective diagnosis and therapy of syphilis in gynecology, with a focus on vulvar and vaginal vulnerability; to analyze the reasons for its insidious hidden diffusibility; to discuss the diagnostic difficulties, the limited availability of the most effective drug, penicillin, the current lack of a vaccine and finally why it is difficult to follow the course of the disease and its therapy through laboratory diagnostics. The final goal is to enhance the diagnostic effectiveness of the gynecologist.

Keywords: syphilis; primary chancre; secondary syphilis; treponema pallidum; penicillin; vulva.


Available in LRIOG Nr.1 – 2021

e-ISSN: 1824-0283


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