Weight excess and inflammation in menopause: pathophysiology of a dangerous liaison and role of lifestyles

Weight excess and inflammation in menopause: pathophysiology of a dangerous liaison and role of lifestyles

Gabriella Pugliese1 Orcid, Annamaria Colao1,2 Orcid, Alessandra GraziottinOrcid

1 – Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Endocrinology Section, “Federico II” University of Naples, Naples, Italy

2 – Unesco Chair “Health Education and Sustainable Development”, Federico II University, Naples, Italy

3 – Center for Gynecology and Medical Sexology H. San Raffaele Resnati Milan, Italy; Graziottin Foundation for the treatment of pain in women, ONLUS, Italy

Corresponding Author: Gabriella Pugliese

robiniapugliese@gmail.com


DOI: 10.53146/lriog1202151

Abstract

Weight gain is a common condition in menopause. It recognizes both non- modifiable and modifiable multifactorial etiological mechanisms. The first include: age, climacteric hormonal changes, alteration of hunger and satiety circuits, reduction of energy expenditure and sleep disorders; while among non-modifiable factors: sedentary lifestyle and nutrition, including the ea- ting time (chrononutrition and chronotype). The redistribution of adipo- se tissue, mainly from the subcutaneous site to the visceral site, acts as a real endocrine organ capable of secreting adipokines and proinflammatory cytokines such as TNF-a, IL-1, IL-6 and leptin. This contributes to the meno- pausal chronic low-grade inflammation, that increases the risk of metabolic disorders, cardiovascular events and neurovegetative disorders. Lifestyles interventions are the first line approach to cope with this condition. To date there are no specific dietary and exercise recommendations to be prescribed in overweight/obese women at menopause. The purpose of this review is, first, to analyse the mechanisms that favour weight gain, with focus on the role of sleep disorders and of proinflammatory mediators produced by the adipose tissue; second, to provide practical recommendations focused on li- festyles, useful in the general clinical management of postmenopausal wo- men. The potential role of bowel microbiota and chronotype will be finally briefly discussed.

Keywords: menopause; obesity; inflammation; sleep disorders; adipose tissue; adipokines.


Available in LRIOG Nr.4 – 2021

e-ISSN: 1824-0283


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Parathyroid disease, bone health and metabolic syndrome

Parathyroid disease, bone health and metabolic syndrome

Roberta ModicaOrcid, Giuseppe Cannavale1 Orcid, Alessia Liccardi1 Orcid, Renata Simona Auriemma1 Orcid, Annamaria Colao1,2,4Orcid

1 – Dipartimento di Medicina Clinica e Chirurgia, Università degli Studi Federico II Napoli

2 – Cattedra Unesco Educazione alla salute e allo Sviluppo Sostenibile, Università degli Studi Federico II Napoli

Corresponding Author: Roberta Modica

robertamodica@libero.it


DOI: 10.53146/lriog1202153

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Parathyroid diseases are related to parathyroid hormone (PTH) dysregulation by parathyroid cells or alteration of PTH function. They include hypoparathyroidism (PTH deficiency), pseudohypoparathyroidism (PTH resistance) and hyperparathyroidism (PTH excess). They are known to al- ter calcium metabolism and consequently bone health. Little is known about correlation between parathyroid diseases and metabolic syndrome. METHODS: Aim of this paper is to analyse the literature to identify the role of parathyroid diseases in bone health and metabolic syndrome.
RESULTS: Hypoparathyroidism and pseudohypoparathyroidism reduce bone remodelling, destroying mineral density with increase of fracture risk. Con- versely, hyperparathyroidism induces increase of bone reabsorption with increased fracture risk. Metabolic syndrome may negatively influence pa- rathyroid diseases and worsen bone health.
CONCLUSIONS: Available data confirm the role of parathyroid diseases in worsening bone health and highlight an important relationship between pa- rathyroid diseases, especially hyperparathyroidism, and metabolic syndrome, which is increasingly widespread.

Keywords: parathyroid hormone; hyperparathyroidism; hypoparathyroidism; bone; calcium; metabolic syndrome.


Available in LRIOG Nr.4 – 2021

e-ISSN: 1824-0283


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Thyroid diseases and female infertility

Thyroid diseases and female infertility

Chiara Graziadio1,2 Orcid, Emanuele Filice1 Orcid, Rosa Pirchio1 Orcid, Renata Simona Auriemma1 Orcid, Alessandra GraziottinOrcid,

Annamaria Colao1,2,4Orcid

1 – Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University, Naples

2 – Italian Center for the care and well-being of the obese patient (C.I.B.O.), Federico II University, Naples

3 – H. San Raffaele Resnati Center of Gynecology, Milan

4 – Unesco Chair “Health Education and Sustainable Development”, Federico II University, Naples

Corresponding Author: Chiara Graziadio

chiaragraziadio@live.it


DOI: 10.53146/lriog1202152

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Thyroid diseases (hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism and thyroid autoimmunity) have been independently associated with fertility di- sorders and pregnancy failure, both in case of spontaneous conception and/ or after assisted reproduction technology (ART). Several studies have looked at the association between thyroid dysfunctions, thyroid autoimmunity (TAI) and reproduction. The aim of this paper is to identify the impact of thyroid diseases, starting from birth, on female infertility, by means of review of the recent pertinent literature.
METHODS: We reviewed the pertinent literature regarding the association between thyroid diseases and female infertility off the main international database (MEDLINE, PubMed).
RESULTS: Thyroid dysfunctions, associated or not with thyroid autoimmunity, can alter ovulation and the associated immunoendocrine processes with con- sequent menstrual irregularities. These complexes endocrine disruptions can result in mild to severe fertility disorders and increased spontaneous abor- tions. Thyroid autoimmunity is associated with an increased risk of miscar- riage and preterm delivery, both in spontaneous pregnancies as well as in pregnancies after ART.
CONCLUSIONS: Thyroid dysfunctions may lead to menstrual disorders and infertility via direct and indirect interactions with the hypothalamo-pituitary- ovarian axis and the reproductive organs.
In the management of the infertile woman, the complete screening of thyroid hormones and autoimmunity is recommended in order to promptly treat any hormonal dysfunctions that may be a cofactor or the cause of infertility. Fur- ther studies are needed to improve diagnostic and therapeutic fertility issues associated with or due to thyroid disorders.

Keywords: hashimoto’s thyroiditis; Basedow-Graves’disease; hyperthyroidism; hypothyroidism; female infertility; thyroid autoimmunity.


Available in LRIOG Nr.4 – 2021

e-ISSN: 1824-0283


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Metabolic syndrome in menopause

Metabolic syndrome in menopause

Roberta Scairati1 Orcid, Renata Simona AuriemmaOrcid, Annamaria Colao1,2 Orcid, Alessandra Graziottin3,4 – Orcid

1 – Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University of Naples, Naples, Italy

2 – United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), Chair for Health Education and Sustainable Development, University Federico II, Naples, Italy

3 – Director of the Center for Gynecology and Medical Sexology, H. San Raffaele Resnati, Milan

4 – President of the Graziottin Foundation for the treatment of pain in women – Non profit organization

Corresponding Author: Roberta Scairati

robertascairati@gmail.com


DOI: 10.53146/lriog1202149

Abstract

Background: Menopause is associated with a high risk for cardiometabolic diseases, including metabolic syndrome (MetS), cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes (DMT2).
Insulin resistance, abdominal obesity, dyslipidemia and hypertension are in- terdependent factors associated with menopause. The increase in the syste- mic inflammation is the common denominator of MetS. The purposes of this review are i) to clarify how the natural cessation of ovarian function, which is characterized by the decline of female sexual hormones and the relative in- crease of androgens, could explain the relationship between MetS, increase of the inflammatory indexes and menopause; ii) to understand how surgical menopause could influence the onset of MetS; iii) to highlight the role of hormone replacement therapy.
Methods: We revised the published literature in english language on PubMed database, from year 1992 to year 2021, by searching the following keywords, including 1) a refined definition of metabolic syndrome 2) relationship betwe- en metabolic syndrome and systemic inflammation 3) relationship between metabolic syndrome and obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension, osteoporo- sis and hypothyroidism, 4) surgical menopause and metabolic syndrome, 5) effects of HRT on the components of the MetS in post-menopausal women. Results: Derived evidences suggest an increased incidence of metabolic syn- drome in menopause, probably due to woman aging and hormonal chan- ges in menopause, worsened by hypothyroidism, inappropriate lifestyles and lack of timely initiated HRT.
Conclusions: Menopause plays a crucial role in the development of MetS and surgical menopause; sudden cessation of ovarian function can lead to a hi- gher incidence of MetS and systemic inflammation than physiological me- nopause. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and a healthy lifestyle may positively influence some aspects of Mets. Our observations can help in the clinical management of menopause-related MetS.

Keywords: menopause; surgical menopause; metabolic syndrome; inflammation; hormone replacement therapy.


Available in LRIOG Nr.4 – 2021

e-ISSN: 1824-0283


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