Hypovitaminosis D and metabolic syndrome

Hypovitaminosis D and metabolic syndrome

Martina Leoni1* Orcid, Marco Infante 1,2,3,4,* Orcid, Raffaele Infante 4 Orcid, Massimiliano Caprio 5,6Orcid, Andrea Fabbri1 – Orcid

1 – Transmural Complex Organizational Unit of Endocrinology & Diabetes Research Institute Federation (DRIF), Department of Systems Medicine, CTO A. Alesini & S.Eugenio Hospitals, Local Health Center Roma 2, University of Rome Tor Vergata (Rome, Italy)

2 – UniCamillus, Saint Camillus International University of Health Sciences (Roma, Italia)

3 – Network of Immunity in Infection, Malignancy and Autoimmunity (NIIMA), Universal Scientific Education and Research Network (USERN) (Roma, Italia)

4 – Cardio Endocrino Metabolica (CEM) – Endocrine and Cardiometabolic Center (Salerno, Italia)

5 – Department of Human Sciences and Promotion of the Quality of Life, San Raffaele University of Rome (Rome, Italy)

6 – Cardiovascular Endocrinology Laboratory, Scientific Institute for Research, Hospitalization and Healthcare, San Raffaele Rome (Rome, Italy)

*Martina Leoni e Marco Infante hanno contribuito in egual misura alla stesura del presente articolo.

Autore di riferimento: Marco Infante


DOI: 10.53146/lriog1202162


Metabolic syndrome is a complex disorder characterized by the co-occurrence of several known cardiovascular risk factors, including obesity, insulin resistance, atherogenic dyslipidemia and hypertension. As such, metabolic syndrome is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Of note, metabolic syndrome is defined by the presence of at least three of the following conditions: abdominal obesity (or central obesity), high blood pressure (≥130/≥85 mmHg), abnormal fasting plasma glucose (≥100 mg/dL), elevated serum triglycerides (≥150 mg/dL) and low high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol level (<40 mg/dL in men, <50 mg/dL in women). Over the last years, the global prevalence of metabolic syndrome has progressively increased as a consequence of the increasing rates of overweight/obesity, population ageing, and lifestyle changes favoring sedentary behaviors, physical inactivity and unhealthy dietary habits. On the other hand, the global prevalence of vitamin D deficiency has concurrently increased. To date, vitamin D deficiency is regarded as a global pandemic afflicting more than one billion individuals across all age groups worldwide. Since growing evidence suggests that vitamin D exerts several pleiotropic extraskeletal actions beyond its well-established role in the regulation of bone homeostasis, researchers have proposed that vitamin D deficiency may be involved in the pathophysiology of metabolic syndrome. Therefore, this brief Report article aims to summarize the current scientific evidence regarding the possible causal relationship between vitamin D deficiency and metabolic syndrome, as well as the potential favorable effects Keywords: metabolic syndrome; obesity; vitamin D deficiency; insulin resistance; type 2 diabetes mellitus; cardiometabolic risk.

Available in LRIOG Nr.1 – 2022

e-ISSN: 1824-0283

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Vitamin D and anti-covid-19 vaccination

Vitamin D and anti-covid-19 vaccination

Marco Infante1,2,3 Orcid, Tsvetelina VelikovaOrcid, Andrea FabbriOrcid

1 – Transmural Complex Operative Unit of Endocrinology & Diabetes Research Institute Federation (DRIF), Department of Systems Medicine, CTO A. Alesini & S.Eugenio Hospitals, ASL Roma 2, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy

2 – UniCamillus, Saint Camillus International University of Health Sciences, Roma, Italia

3 – Network of Immunity in Infection, Malignancy and Autoimmunity (NIIMA), Universal Scientific Education and Research Network (USERN), Rome, Italy

4 – Department of Clinical Immunology, Lozenetz University Hospital, Sofia University “S. Clement of Ohrid ”, Sofia, Bulgaria

Corresponding Author: Marco Infante


DOI: 10.53146/lriog1202148


Since March 2020, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic cau- sed by the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndro- me coronavirus 2) has been posing a serious threat to global public health. Significant efforts have been made by the scientific community to develop different types of vaccines against SARS-CoV-2, such as inactivated whole- virion vaccines, viral vector-based vaccines, mRNA vaccines, DNA vaccines and protein subunit vaccines. To date, nationwide and global vaccination cam- paigns represent critical tools to reach the so-called “herd imunity” aimed at controlling and eventually ending the COVID-19 pandemic. Due to the continuous emergence and spread of novel SARS-CoV-2 viral variants, com- plementary strategies aimed at improving the immunity of the general po- pulation and frail individuals may contribute to increase the effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccines. Therefore, the scientific community is also focused on fac- tors able to determine an effective immune response against the virus after vaccination against COVID-19. Currently, vitamin D deficiency also represents a global pandemic afflicting more than one billion individuals across all age groups. Several observational studies have demonstrated that serum levels of vitamin D are significantly and inversely correlated with the incidence and se- verity of COVID-19. In addition, intervention studies have shown that vitamin D supplementation may have a role in mitigating the clinical progression of COVID-19 in light of the anti-infective, anti-inflammatory and immunomo- dulatory properties exerted by this vitamin. Nevertheless, it remains unclear whether vitamin D supplementation (particularly in subjects with vitamin D deficiency) plays a relevant role in enhancing the effectiveness of different COVID-19 vaccines. Thus, future prospective studies are needed to address this unanswered question. In this Report article, we discuss the relationship between hypovitaminosis D and COVID-19 pathophysiology, as well as the potential mechanisms behind the role of vitamin D as as an immunologic adjuvant for COVID-19 vaccines.

Keywords: COVID-19 vaccines; SARS-CoV-2 vaccines; vitamin D; vaccine adjuvant; immunity.

Available in LRIOG Nr.4 – 2021

e-ISSN: 1824-0283

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